# Electrical Terms

## Types of Losses in a Transformer

There are various types of losses in the transformer such as iron loss, copper loss, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, stray loss, and dielectric loss. The hysteresis losses occur because of the variation of the magnetization in the core of the transformer and the copper loss occurs because of the transformer winding resistance. The various …

When the transformer is on the loaded condition, the secondary of the transformer is connected to load. The load can be resistive, inductive or capacitive. The current I2 flows through the secondary winding of the transformer. The magnitude of the secondary current depends on the terminal voltage V2 and the load impedance. The phase angle …

## Voltage Regulation of a Transformer

Definition: The voltage regulation is defined as the change in the magnitude of receiving and sending voltage of the transformer. The voltage regulation determines the ability of the transformer to provide the constant voltage for variable loads. When the transformer is loaded with continuous supply voltage, the terminal voltage of the transformer varies. The variation …

## Equivalent Circuit of a Transformer

The equivalent circuit diagram of any device can be quite helpful in the pre-determination of the behavior of the device under the various condition of operation. It is simply the circuit representation of the equation describing the performance of the device. The simplified equivalent circuit of a transformer is drawn by representing all the parameters …

## Construction of a Transformer

The transformer mainly consists of the Magnetic circuit, electric circuit, dielectric circuit, tanks, and accessories. The main elements of the transformer are the primary and secondary windings and the steel core. The core of the transformer is made up of silicon steel in order to provide a continuous magnetic path. Usually, the core of the …

## All Day Efficiency of a Transformer

Definition: All day efficiency means the power consumed by the transformer throughout the day. It is defined as the ratio of output power to the input power in kWh or wh of the transformer over 24 hours. Mathematically, it is represented as All-day efficiency of the transformer depends on their load cycle. The load cycle of …

## Transformer on No Load Condition

When the transformer is operating at no load, the secondary winding is open-circuited, which means there is no load on the secondary side of the transformer and, therefore, current in the secondary will be zero. While primary winding carries a small current I0 called no-load current which is 2 to 10% of the rated current. …

## Transformer Efficiency

The Efficiency of the transformer is defined as the ratio of useful output power to the input power. The input and output power are measured in the same unit. Its unit is either in Watts (W) or KW. Transformer efficiency is denoted by Ƞ. Where, V2 – Secondary terminal voltage I2 – Full load secondary …

## Per Unit System

For the analysis of electrical machines or electrical machine system, different values are required, thus, per unit system provides the value for voltage, current, power, impendence, and admittance. The Per Unit System also makes the calculation easier as all the values are taken in the same unit. The per-unit system is mainly used in the …

## Resistance and Reactance of the Transformer

The Resistance of the transformer is defined as the internal resistance of both primary and secondary windings. In an actual transformer, the primary and the secondary windings have some resistance represented by R1 and R2 and the reactances by X1 and X2. Let K be the transformation ratio. To make the calculations easy the resistances …