# Electrical Terms

## Peak Value, Average Value and RMS Value

Peak Value Definition: The maximum value attained by an alternating quantity during one cycle is called its Peak value. It is also known as the maximum value or amplitude or crest value. The sinusoidal alternating quantity obtains its peak value at 90 degrees as shown in the figure below. The peak values of alternating voltage …

## Peak Factor

Definition: Peak Factor is defined as the ratio of maximum value to the R.M.S value of an alternating quantity. The alternating quantities can be voltage or current. The maximum value is the peak value or the crest value or the amplitude of the voltage or current. The root mean square value is the amount of …

## AC Circuit

The circuit that is excited using alternating source is called an AC Circuit. The alternating current (AC) is used for domestic and industrial purposes. In an AC circuit, the value of the magnitude and the direction of current and voltages is not constant, it changes at a regular interval of time. It travels as a …

## Types of Transformer

There are various types of transformer used in the electrical power system for different purposes, like generation, distribution and transmission and utilization of electrical power. The different types of transformer are Step up and Step down Transformer, Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer, Instrument transformer comprising current and Potential Transformer, Single phase and Three phase transformer, Auto …

## Power Triangle

Power Triangle is the representation of a right angle triangle showing the relation between active power, reactive power and apparent power. When each component of the current that is the active component (Icosϕ) or the reactive component (Isinϕ) is multiplied by the voltage V, a power triangle is obtained shown in the figure below: The …

## Cooling of Transformer and Methods of Cooling

Cooling of Transformer is the process by which heat generated in the transformer is dissipated or treated to the safe value. This is achieved by various cooling methods of transformer available. The major factor for the generation of heat in the transformer is the various losses like hysteresis, eddy current, iron, and copper loss. Among …

## Active, Reactive and Apparent Power

Active Power Definition: The power which is actually consumed or utilised in an AC Circuit is called True power or Active power or Real power. It is measured in kilowatt (kW) or MW. It is the actual outcomes of the electrical system which runs the electric circuits or load. Reactive Power Definition: The power which flows …

## Open Circuit and Short Circuit Test on Transformer

The open circuit and short circuit test are performed for determining the parameter of the transformer like their efficiency, voltage regulation, circuit constant etc. These tests are performed without the actual loading and because of this reason the very less power is required for the test. The open circuit and the short circuit test gives …

## Polarity Test of Transformer

Polarity means the direction of the induced voltages in the primary and the secondary winding of the transformer. If the two transformers are connected in parallel, then the polarity should be known for the proper connection of the transformer. There are two types of polarity one is Additive, and another is Subtractive. Contents: Additive Polarity …

## Auto Transformer

An Auto Transformer is a transformer with only one winding wound on a laminated core. An auto transformer is similar to a two winding transformer but differ in the way the primary and secondary winding are interrelated. A part of the winding is common to both primary and secondary sides. On load condition, a part …