Power Systems

Different Layouts for Substation

The substation is the part of an electrical supply system which transmits the high voltage from the generating substations to the local distribution networks. Between the generation and distribution, the voltage may vary through several substations. The different types of layout for substation are explained below in details. Typical Radial Substation In the radial substation, …

Methods of Voltage Control in Power System

The voltage of the power system may vary with the change in load. The voltage is normally high at light load and low at the heavy-load condition. For keeping the voltage of the system in limits, some additional equipment requires which increase the system voltage when it is low and reduces the voltage when it …

Transposition of Conductors

Definition: The transposition is a physical rotation of the conductors so that the conductor is moved to take up the next physical position in the regular sequence. The transposition of the conductor equalises the mutual inductance and capacitance between the lines. The irregular spacing between the conductor gives a complex value of inductances which makes …

Sequence Impedance

The sequence impedance of the network describes the behaviour of the system under asymmetrical fault conditions. The performance of the system determines by calculating the impedance offered by the different element of the power system to the flow of the different phase sequence component of the current. Every power system component (static or rotating) has …

Single Line Diagram of 11kV Substation

Substation provides the energy supply for the local area in which the line is located. The main function of the substation is to collect the energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating station and then reduce the voltage to an appropriate value for local distribution and gives facilities for switching. The substation is of …

Sequence Networks

Definition: The sequence impedance network is defined as a balance equivalent network for the balance power system under an imagined working condition so that only single sequence component of voltage and current is present in the system. The symmetrical components are useful for computing the unsymmetrical fault at different points of a power system network. …

Regulating Transformer

Definition: The transformer which changes the magnitude and phase angle at the certain point in the power system is known as the regulating transformer. It is mainly used for controlling the magnitude of bus voltage and for controlling the power flow, which is controlled by the phase angle of the transformer. They provide the small …

Classification of Transmission Lines

The classification of the transmission lines depends on its voltage and the length of the conductor. The transmission line is the medium of transferring the power from the generating station to the load centre. It is mainly classified into two types. They are the AC Transmission Line Short-Transmission Line Medium Transmission Line Pi Model of …

Line Regulation

Definition: The voltage or line regulation is defined as the variation in the voltage at the receiving end of the line when the full load at a given power factor is removed and the voltage at the sending end being kept constant.  In other words, it is defined as the percentage variation in voltage at …