Indoor Substation

A substation in which the apparatus is equipped inside the substation building is called indoor substation. Such type of substation is mainly used for the voltage up to 11000 v, but when the surrounding air is contaminated by impurities such as metal corroding gases and fumes, conductive dust, etc., their voltage can be raised up …

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Critical Clearing Angle

The critical clearing angle is defined as the maximum change in the load angle curve before clearing the fault without loss of synchronism. In other words, when the fault occurs in the system the load angle curve begin to increase, and the system becomes unstable. The angle at which the fault becomes clear and the …

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Equal Area Criterion

The equal area criterion is a simple graphical method for concluding the transient stability of two-machine systems or a single machine against an infinite bus. This principle does not require the swing equation for the determination of stability conditions. The stability conditions are recognized by equating the areas of segments on the power angle diagram …

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Electronic Relay

Definition: The electronic relay is a type of an electronic switch that opens or close the circuit contacts by using electronic component without any mechanical operation. In this relay, the current carrier pilot relaying scheme is used for the protection of the transmission line. In such type of relay, the electronic valves are used as …

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Negative Sequence Relay

Definition: A relay which protects the electrical system from negative sequence component is called a negative sequence relay or unbalance phase relay. The negative sequence relay protects the generator and motor from the unbalanced load which mainly occurs because of the phase-to-phase faults. The negative sequence relay has a filter circuit which operates only for the …

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Differential Protection Relay

Definition: The relay whose operation depends on the phase difference of two or more electrical quantities is known as the differential protection relay. It works on the principle of comparison between the phase angle and the magnitude of the same electrical quantities. For example: Consider the comparison of the input and output current of the …

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Mho Relay

A mho Relay is a high-speed relay and is also known as the admittance relay. In this relay operating torque is obtained by the volt-amperes element and the controlling element is developed due to the voltage element. It means a mho relay is a voltage controlled directional relay. A mho relay using the induction cup structure …

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Reactance Relay

The reactance relay is a high-speed relay. This relay consists of two elements an overcurrent element and a current-voltage directional element. The current element developed positive torque and a current-voltage developed directional element which opposes the current element depending on the phase angle between current and voltage. Reactance relay is an overcurrent relay with directional …

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Classification of Substations

The substation is the medium of transferring the power from generating unit to the consumer end. It consists different types of equipment like transformer, generator, power cable which helps in the power transmission. The generation, transmission and distribution are the main work of the substation. The substation which generates the power is known as the …

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Impedance Type Distance Relay

Definition: The relay whose working depends on the distance between the impedance of the faulty section and the position on which relay installed is known as the impedance relay or distance relay. It is a voltage controlled equipment. The relay measures the impedance of the faulty point, if the impedance is less than the impedance …

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