## PNP Transistor

Definition: The transistor in which one n-type material is doped with two p-type materials such type of transistor is known as PNP transistor. It is a current controlled device. The small amount of base current controlled both the emitter and collector current. The PNP transistor has two crystal diodes connected back to back. The left side …

## Difference Between PN Junction & Zener Diode

The major difference between PN junction and the Zener diode is that the PN junction diode allows current to pass only in the forward direction, whereas the Zener diode allows the current to flow both in the forward and the reversed direction. The other differences between the PN-junction and Zener diode are shown in the …

Definition: The load line analysis of transistor means for the given value of collector-emitter voltage we find the value of collector current. This can be done by plotting the output characteristic and then determine the collector current IC with respect to collector-emitter voltage VCE. The load line analysis can easily be obtained by determining the …

## Operating Point in Transistor

Definition: The point which is obtained from the values of the IC (collector current) or VCE (collector-emitter voltage) when no signal is given to the input is known as the operating point or Q-point in a transistor. It is called operating point because variations of IC (collector current) and VCE (collector-emitter voltage) takes place around this point when no …

## Universal Relay Torque Equation

The universal torque equation explains the working of an electrical relay. The relay has some arrangement of electromagnetic. These electromagnetic consist current and voltage windings. The current through the winding produces magnetic flux. And the torque is produced by the interaction of the flux of the same winding or between the flux of both the windings. If …

## Volt-Ampere Characteristic of a PN Junction Diode

The volt-ampere characteristic of the PN-junction diode is a curve between the voltage over the junction and the circuit current. The circuit arrangement of the curve is shown in the figure below. The circuit arrangement shows that the resistor is connected in series with the PN junction diode to limit the forward bias current from …

## Common Collector Connection (or CC Configuration)

Definition: The configuration in which the collector is common between emitter and base is known as CC configuration. In CC configuration, the input circuit is connected between emitter and base and the output is taken from the collector and emitter. The collector is common to both the input and output circuit and hence the name …

## NPN Transistor

Definition: The transistor in which one p-type material is placed between two n-type materials is known as NPN transistor. The NPN transistor amplifies the weak signal enter into the base and produces strong amplify signals at the collector end. In NPN transistor, the direction of movement of an electron is from the emitter to collector region due …

## Common Emitter Connection (or CE Configuration)

Definition: The configuration in which the emitter is connected between the collector and base is known as a common emitter configuration. The input circuit is connected between emitter and base, and the output circuit is taken from the collector and emitter. Thus, the emitter is common to both the input and the output circuit, and …

## Methods of Voltage Control in Power System

The voltage of the power system may vary with the change in load. The voltage is normally high at light load and low at the heavy-load condition. For keeping the voltage of the system in limits, some additional equipment requires which increase the system voltage when it is low and reduces the voltage when it …