## Ferranti Effect

Definition: The effect in which the voltage at the receiving end of the transmission line is more than the sending voltage is known as the Ferranti effect. Such type of effect mainly occurs because of light load or open circuit at the receiving end. Ferranti effect is due to the charging current of the line. …

Definition: Load factor is defined as the ratio of the average load over a given period to the maximum demand (peak load) occurring in that period. In other words, the load factor is the ratio of energy consumed in a given period of the times of hours to the peak load which has occurred during …

## Skin Effect

The non-uniform distribution of electric current over the surface or skin of the conductor carrying a.c is called the skin effect. In other words, the concentration of charge is more near the surface as compared to the core of the conductor. The ohmic resistance of the conductor is increased due to the concentration of current …

## Difference between Step-up and Step-down transformer

A transformer is a static device which transfers a.c electrical power from one circuit to the other at the same frequency, but the voltage level is usually changed. For economical reasons, electric power is required to be transmitted at high voltage whereas it has to be utilized at low voltage from a safety point of …

## Working Voltage in Power System

The term Working Voltage means the maximum voltage that any device can withstand without getting damaged or burnt off, keeping in mind factors like reliability and safety of the device and circuits for proper operation.If the power is transmitted to a long distance there, exist the desirability of using high voltage. It is also necessary …

## Newton Raphson Method

Newton Raphson Method is an iterative technique for solving a set of various nonlinear equations with an equal number of unknowns. There are two methods of solutions for the load flow using Newton Raphson Method. The first method uses rectangular coordinates for the variables while the second method uses the polar coordinate form. Out of …

## Iterative Method

The Iterative Method is a mathematical way of solving a problem which generates a sequence of approximations. This method is applicable for both linear and nonlinear problems with large number of variables. The word Iterative or Iteration refers to the technique that solve any linear system problems with successive approximation at each step. There are …

## Gauss Seidel Method

Gauss-Seidel Method is used to solve the linear system Equations. This method is named after the German Scientist Carl Friedrich Gauss and Philipp Ludwig Siedel. It is a method of iteration for solving n linear equation with the unknown variables. This method is very simple and uses in digital computers for computing. The Gauss-Seidel method …