Different Layouts for Substation

The substation is the part of an electrical supply system which transmits the high voltage from the generating substations to the local distribution networks. Between the generation and distribution, the voltage may vary through several substations. The different types of layout for substation are explained below in details. Typical Radial Substation In the radial substation, …

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Difference Between CFL & LED Bulbs

The major difference between the CFL and LED is that in CFL the emission of light is because of the ionisation of mercury vapour. The mercury vapour when ionise produces ultraviolet rays. These rays when collides with phosphorous coating tube generates visible light. Whereas in the LED it is because of the PN junction diode. When …

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Zener Diode

Definition: A heavily doped semiconductor diode which is designed to operate in reverse direction is known as the Zener diode. In other words, the diode which is specially designed for optimising the breakdown region is known as the Zener diode. The symbolic representation of Zener diode is shown in the figure below. Zener Diode Circuit …

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Fabrication of Transistor

Definition: The fabrication of the transistor is the process of creating the transistor that is used in electrical and electronics circuit. It is a photo-lithographic or chemical process of creating the transistor on the wafer of semiconductor material. Mostly silicon is used for the fabrication. But compound semiconductor is also used for the manufacturing of …

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Octal Number System

Definition: The number system whose base is 8 is known as the octal number system. The base 8 means the system uses eight digits from 0 to 7. All the eight digits from 0 to 8 have same physical meaning as that of decimal numbers. The next digit in octal number is represented by 10, …

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PNP Transistor

Definition: The transistor in which one n-type material is doped with two p-type materials such type of transistor is known as PNP transistor. It is a current controlled device. The small amount of base current controlled both the emitter and collector current. The PNP transistor has two crystal diodes connected back to back. The left side …

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Transistor Load Line Analysis

Definition: The load line analysis of transistor means for the given value of collector-emitter voltage we find the value of collector current. This can be done by plotting the output characteristic and then determine the collector current IC with respect to collector-emitter voltage VCE. The load line analysis can easily be obtained by determining the …

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Operating Point in Transistor

 Definition: The point which is obtained from the values of the IC (collector current) or VCE (collector-emitter voltage) when no signal is given to the input is known as the operating point or Q-point in a transistor. It is called operating point because variations of IC (collector current) and VCE (collector-emitter voltage) takes place around this point when no …

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Universal Relay Torque Equation

The universal torque equation explains the working of an electrical relay. The relay has some arrangement of electromagnetic. These electromagnetic consist current and voltage windings. The current through the winding produces magnetic flux. And the torque is produced by the interaction of the flux of the same winding or between the flux of both the windings. If …

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