Electrical Terms

Measurement of Earth Resistance

The measurement of earth resistance is made by the potential fall method. The resistance area of the earth electrode is the area of the soil around which a voltage gradient is measured with a commercial instrument. In the figure shown below E is the earth electrode under rest, and A is an auxiliary earth electrode …

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Soil Resistivity

Definition: The measure of the resistance offered by the soil in the flow of electricity, is called the soil resistivity. The resistivity of the soil depends on the various factors likes soil composition, moisture, temperature, etc. Generally, the soil is not homogenous, and their resistivity varies with the depth. The soil having a low resistivity …

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Types of Lightning Arresters

The lightning arrester protects the electrical equipment from lightning. It is placed very near to the equipment and when the lightning occurs the arrester diverts the high voltage wave of lightning to the ground. The selection of arrester depends on the various factors like voltage, current, reliability, etc. The lightning arrestor is mainly classified into …

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Lightning Arrester

Definition: The device which is used for the protection of the equipment at the substations against travelling waves, such type of device is called lightning arrester or surge diverter. In other words, lightning arrester diverts the abnormals high voltage to the ground without affecting the continuity of supply. It is connected between the line and …

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Lightning Stroke

Definition: Lightning stroke is the direct discharge of an electrical charge between the atmosphere and the object of earth. It is a sudden flow of electric charge between the electrical charge area of a cloud also called intra-cloud and another cloud called (CC lightning) or between the charged cloud and the ground (CG lightning). The …

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Economic Load Dispatch

Definition: The economic load dispatch means the real and reactive power of the generator vary within the certain limits and fulfils the load demand with less fuel cost. The sizes of the electric power system are increasing rapidly to meet the energy requirement. So the number of power plants is connected in parallel to supply …

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Shunt Resistor

Definition: A resistor having a very low value of resistance such type of resistor is called shunt resistance. The shunt resistor is mainly made of the material having the low-temperature coefficient of resistance. It is connected in parallel with the ammeter whose range is to be extended. It is also connected in series with the …

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Static Voltage Regulator

Definition: The regulator which do not have any rotating parts, such type of regulator is called static voltage regulator. Their circuit consists apparatus like transformers, capacitors, resistors, transistors, magnetic amplifiers, etc. Such type of regulators do not have friction and wear loss ( because it does not have any rotating parts). It does not require …

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Automatic Voltage Regulator

The automatic voltage regulator is used to regulate the voltage. It takes the fluctuate voltage and changes them into a constant voltage. The fluctuation in the voltage mainly occurs due to the variation in load on the supply system. The variation in voltage damages the equipment of the power system. The variation in the voltage …

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Excitation System

Definition: The system which is used for providing the necessary field current to the rotor winding of the synchronous machine, such type of system is called an excitation system. In other words, excitation system is defined as the system which is used for the production of the flux by passing current in the field winding. …

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