Difference Between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer

There are several differences between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer. The difference is categorized on the factors like the type of network used where they are installed and used whether for low voltages or high voltages. The various ratings in which the power and the distribution transformers are available in the market. The designed efficiency and the designing of their core, the types of losses occurring in the transformer, their operating conditions, and various applications.

The difference between the two transformers is given below

BASIS OF DIFFERENCEPOWER TRANSFORMERDISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER
Type of networkIt is used in transmission network of higher voltagesIt is used in the distribution network for lower voltages.
Availability of ratings400 kV, 200 kV, 110 kV , 66 kV, 33 kV.11 Kv, 6.6 Kv, 3.3 Kv, 440 V,230 V
Maximum rating of usagePower transformers are used for rating above 200 MVADistribution transformers are used for rating less than 200 MVA
SizeLarger in size as compared of distribution transformersSmaller in size
Designed Efficiency Designed for maximum efficiency of 100%Designed for 50-70% efficiency
Efficiency formulaEfficiency is measured as the ratio of output to the input powerHere All Day Efficiency is considered. It is the ratio of output in kilowatt hour (kWh) or watt hour (Wh) to the input in kWh or Wh of a transformer over 24 hours.
Application Used in generating stations and transmission substationsUsed in distribution stations, also for industrial and domestic purposes
Losses Copper and iron losses take place throughout the dayIron losses take place for 24 hours and copper losses are based on load cycle
Load fluctuationIn power transformer the load fluctuations are very lessLoad fluctuations are very high
Operating conditionAlways operated at full loadOperated at load less than full load as load cycle fluctuates
Considering timeIt is independent of timeIt is time dependent
Flux densityIn power transformer flux density is higherAs compared to power transformer the flux density is lower in distribution transformer
Designing of the coreDesigned to utilize the core for maximum and will operate near to the saturation point of the B-H curve, which helps to bring down the mass of core As compared to power transformer the flux density is lower in distribution transformer
Usage Used to step up and step down voltagesUsed as an end user connectivity

Power Transformer

The Power Transformer is installed at various power stations for generation and transmission of power. It acts as a step-up or a step-down transformer for increasing and decreasing of the level of voltages as per the requirement, and it’s also used as an interconnection between two power stations.

Distribution Transformer

The Distribution Transformer is used to bring down or step down the voltage and current level of a transmission line to a predefined level, which is called safety level for the end user consumer in domestic and industrial purpose.

Difference Between Power Transformer and Distribution Transformer

  • Power transformers are used in transmission network of higher voltages whereas the Distribution Transformers are used in the distribution network of lower voltages.
  • The power transformers are available in various ratings of 400 KV, 200 KV, 110 KV, 66 KV, 33 KV in the market and the distribution transformer are available in 11 KV, 6.6 KV, 3.3 KV, 440 V, 230 Volts.
  • The power transformer always operates on rated full load as the load fluctuation is very less but the distribution transformer is operated at the load less than full load as the variation in the loads are very high.
  • The power transformers are designed for maximum efficiency of 100%, and the efficiency is simply calculated by the ratio of output power to the input power, whereas the distribution transformer the maximum efficiency varies between 50-70% and calculated by All Day Efficiency.
  • Power transformers are used in power generating stations and transmission substations, and the distribution transformer is installed at the distribution stations from where the power is distributed for the industrial and domestic purposes.
  • The size of the power transformer is large as compared to the distribution transformers.
  • In Power Transformer, the iron and copper losses take place throughout the day but in distribution transformer the iron loss takes place 24 hours i.e., throughout the day, and the copper losses depend on the load cycle.

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