# Difference Between Magnetic And Electric Circuit

The Difference Between the Magnetic and Electric Circuit are explained considering various factors like the basic definition, relation between Flux and Current, Reluctance and Resistance, EMF and MMF, different analogies of both the circuits. Like its density and intensity, laws applicable in the circuit, Magnetic and Electric lines, etc.

The Difference Between Both the circuits are explained below in the tabulated form.

BASISMAGNETIC CIRCUITELECTRIC CIRCUIT
DefinitionThe closed path for magnetic flux is called magnetic circuit.The closed path for electric current is called electric circuit.
Relation Between Flux and Current Flux = mmf/reluctanceCurrent = emf/ resistance
UnitsFlux φ is measured in weber (wb)Current I is measured in amperes
MMF and EMFMagnetomotive force is the driving force and is measured in Ampere turns (AT)
Mmf =ʃ H.dl
Electromotive force is the driving force and measured in volts (V)
Emf = ʃ E.dl
Reluctance and ResistanceReluctance opposes the flow of magnetic flux S = l/aµ and measured in (AT/wb)Resistance opposes the flow of current
R = ρ. l/a and measured in (Ώ)
Relation between Permeance and ConductionPermeance = 1/reluctanceConduction = 1/ resistance
AnalogyPermeability Conductivity
AnalogyReluctivity Resistivity
DensityFlux density B = φ/a (wb/m2)Current density J = I/a (A/m2)
IntensityMagnetic intensity H = NI/lElectric density E = V/d
DropsMmf drop = φSVoltage drop = IR
Flux and ElectronsIn magnetic circuit molecular poles are aligned. The flux does not flow, but sets up in the magnetic circuit.In electric circuit electric current flows in the form of electrons.
ExamplesFor magnetic flux, there is no perfect insulator. It can set up even in the non magnetic materials like air, rubber, glass etc.For electric circuit there are a large number of perfect insulators like glass, air, rubber, PVC and synthetic resin which do not allow it to flow through them.
Variation of Reluctance and ResistanceThe reluctance (S) of a magnetic circuit is not constant rather it varies with the value of B.The resistance (R) of an electric circuit is almost constant as its value depends upon the value of ρ. The value of ρ and R can change slightly if the change in temperature takes place
Energy in the circuitOnce the magnetic flux sets up in a magnetic circuit, no energy is expanded. Only a small amount of energy is required at the initial stage to create flux in the circuit.Energy is expanding continuously, as long as the current flows through the electrical circuit.
This energy is dissipated in the form of heat.
Applicable LawsKhirchhoff flux and mmf law is followedKhirchhoff voltage and current law is followed. (KVL and KCL)
Magnetic and Electric linesMagnetic lines of flux starts from North pole and ends at South pole.Electric lines or current starts from positive charge and ends on negative charge.

Magnetic Circuit

The closed path followed by magnetic lines of forces or we can say magnetic flux is called magnetic circuit. A magnetic circuit is made up of magnetic materials having high permeability such as iron, soft steel, etc. Magnetic circuits are used in various devices like electric motor, transformers, relays, generators galvanometer, etc.

Electric Circuit

The rearrangement by which various electrical sources like AC source or DC source, resistances, capacitance and another electrical parameter are connected is called electric circuit or electrical network.

## Key Differences Between Magnetic and Electric Circuit

1. The closed path followed by the flux in the Magnetic Circuit, whereas in the Electric Circuit Current follows the closed path.
2. The unit of flux is Weber, and the unit of current is Ampere.
3. Magnetomotive force in the magnetic circuit is the driving force and is measured in Ampere-turns (AT). Electromotive force is the driving force in the electric circuit and is measured in volts (V).
4. Reluctance opposed the flow of magnetic flux S = l/aµ and measured in (AT/wb) and Resistance opposes the flow of current R = ρ. l/a and measured in (Ώ).
5. In the magnetic circuit Permeance = 1/reluctance whereas in the electric circuit Conduction = 1/ resistance.
6. As in the magnetic circuit, there exists Permeability so as Conductivity in the electric circuit. Similarly, Reluctivity in magnetic circuit is known as Resistivity in the electric circuit.
7. In the magnetic circuit, molecular poles are aligned. The flux does not flow but sets up in the magnetic circuit. In electric circuit electric current flows in the form of electrons.
8. For magnetic flux, there is no perfect insulator. It can set up even in the non-magnetic materials like air, rubber, glass, etc. For electric circuit, there are a large number of perfect insulators like glass, air, rubber, PVC and synthetic resin which do not allow it to flow through them.
9. The reluctance (S) of a magnetic circuit is not constant rather it varies with the value of B.The resistance (R) of an electric circuit is almost constant as its value depends upon the value of ρ. The value of ρ and R can change slightly if the change in temperature takes place.
10. Once the magnetic flux sets up in a magnetic circuit, no energy is expanded. Only a small amount of energy is required at the initial stage to create flux in the circuit. Energy is expanding continuously, as long as the current flows through the electrical circuit.
This energy is dissipated in the form of heat.
11. Kirchhoff flux and MMF law is followed in the magnetic circuit whereas in the electric circuit Kirchhoff voltage and current law is followed. (KVL and KCL).
12. Magnetic lines of flux start from The North Pole and ends at the South Pole. Electric lines or current starts from the positive charge and ends on the negative charge.

Hence, magnetic and electric circuits are different.

### 13 thoughts on “Difference Between Magnetic And Electric Circuit”

1. Very good explanation. I am reading this a day before my exam and it is helpful.
Thank you very much