# Auto transformer Starter

An** Auto transformer Starter** is suitable for both star and delta connected motors. In this method, the starting current is limited by using a three-phase auto transformer to reduce the initial stator applied voltage. The figure below shows the motor with the **Auto transformer starter.**

It is provided with a number of tappings. The starter is connected to one particular tapping to obtain the most suitable starting voltage. A double throw switch S is used to connect the auto transformer in the circuit for starting. When the** handle H** of the switch S in the** START** position. The primary of the auto transformer is connected to the supply line, and the motor is connected to the secondary of the auto transformer.

When the motor picks up the speed of about 80 percent of its rated value, the handle H is quickly moved to the **RUN** position. Thus, the auto transformer is disconnected from the circuit, and the motor is directly connected to the line and achieve its full rated voltage. The handle is held in the **RUN** position by the under voltage relay.

If the supply voltage fails or falls below a certain value, the handle is released and returns to the **OFF** position. Thermal overload relays provide the overload protection.

## Theory of Auto transformer Starter

The** figure (a**) shown below shows the condition when the motor is directly switched on to lines and the **figure (b)** shows when the motor is started with the help of auto transformer.

Let,

- Z
_{e10}is the equivalent standstill impedance per phase of the motor referred to the stator side - V
_{1}is the supply voltage per phase.

When the full voltage V_{1} per phase is applied to the direct switching, the starting current drawn from the supply is given by the equation shown below.

With auto transformer starting, if a tapping of the transformer ratio x is used, then the voltage per phase across the motor is xV_{1}. Therefore, at the starting, the motor current is given by the equation.

In a transformer, the ratio of currents is inversely proportional to the voltage ratio provided that the no load current is neglected. i.e.,

If I’_{stl} is the current taken from the supply by the auto transformer. Then,

Substituting the value of I_{stm} from the equation (2) in the equation (3) we get.

Therefore,

Since the torque developed is proportional to the square of the applied voltage, the starting torque with the direct switching is given as

Similarly, starting torque with auto transformer starter

Therefore,

With the auto transformer, at the starting, the motor current is given by the equation shown below.

From the equation (3) and (9) we can conclude that

From the above equation (5) we get

The above equation (5) and the equation (8) shows that with an auto transformer, the starting current I’_{stl} from the main supply and the starting torque are reduced to the x^{2} times to the corresponding values with the direct online starting.

Now, comparing equation (4) and the equation (11) we get

Thus, the star delta starter is equivalent to an auto transformer starter of the ratio **x = 0.58**. A Star Delta starter is much cheaper than an auto transformer starter and is commonly used for both small and the medium size motors.

## 5 Comments

thank you

Great Explanation 😀

keep it up.

Thanks sir, great explanation ….

Why we do use auto transformer starter when there is a cheap alternative, star-delta starter is also available.