# Open Circuit and Short Circuit Test on Transformer

In order to determine the parameters of a transformer such as voltage regulation and efficiency, the following two tests are carried out.

**Contents:**

- Open Circuit Test
- Calculation of Open Circuit Test
- Short Circuit Test
- Calculation of Short Circuit Test

## Open Circuit Test

The Open circuit test is carried out to determine the no-load loss or core loss or iron loss. No load current I_{0}, which is helpful in finding the no load parameters R_{0} and X_{0} of the transformer. This test is usually carried out on the low voltage (LV) side of the transformer that is a watt meter (W), a voltmeter (V) and an ammeter (A) are connected to the primary side of the transformer as shown in the figure below. The primary winding is connected to the normal rated voltage V_{1} and frequency as given of the nameplate rating of the transformer. The secondary side of the transformer is kept open circuited.

As the high voltage side (HV) of the transformer is open circuited, the current drawn by the primary is no load current I_{0 }which is measured by an ammeter connected.The value of no-load current is very small usually 2 to 10% of the rated full load current. Thus, there is no copper loss on the secondary side as it is open circuited and in the primary winding, the copper loss occurring are very small. Therefore, the wattmeter reading W_{0 }only represents the core or iron losses. The voltmeter V’ connected to the secondary side measures the secondary induced voltage V_{2}.

### Calculation of open circuit test

Let,

- W
_{0}– wattmeter reading - V
_{1}– voltmeter reading - I
_{0}– ammeter reading

Then the iron loss of the transformer P_{i }= W_{0 }and

The no-load power factor is

Putting the value of W_{0} from the equation (1) in equation (2) you will get the value of working component as

No load parameters are given below

Equivalent exciting resistance is

Equivalent exciting reactance is

The phasor diagram of transformer at no load or when an open circuit test is performed is shown below

The iron losses measured by the open circuit test is used for calculating the efficiency of the transformer.

## Short Circuit Test

The short circuit test is performed to determine the copper losses at full load, which is further required for the calculation of the efficiency of the transformer. This test also helps in determining the equivalent impedance (Zes or Zep), resistance (Res or Rep) and the leakage reactance (Xes or Xep) of the transformer referred to the winding in which the measuring instruments are connected. By knowing these parameters the voltage drop can be calculated and thus voltage regulation can be determined.

The circuit diagram of the short circuit test is shown below

The short circuit test is usually carried out on the high voltage (HV) side of the transformer. The watt meter (W), a voltmeter (V) and an ammeter (A) are connected to the secondary side of the transformer as shown in the above figure.the primary side is short circuited. With the help of an autotransformer, a low voltage at the normal frequency is applied to the secondary side of the transformer so that full load current flows in both the windings of the transformer. The full load current is measured by ammeters connected.

As a low voltage is applied on the HV side, which is 5 to 10% of the normal rated voltage. Therefore, the value of the flux which is set up in the core is also small, about 1/30^{th} to 1/8^{th} of the normal flux. Hence, the iron losses are negligibly small due to the low value of flux and thus the wattmeter W_{c} only measures the copper loss in the transformer windings.

### Calculation of Short Circuit Test

Let,

- W
_{c}– Wattmeter reading - V
_{2sc}– voltmeter reading - I
_{2sc }– ammeter reading

Then the full load copper loss of the transformer is given by

Equivalent resistance referred to secondary side is

The phasor diagram of the short circuit test of the transformer is shown below

Equivalent impedance referred to the secondary side is given by

The Equivalent reactance referred to the secondary side is given by

The voltage regulation of the transformer can be determined at any load and power factor after knowing the values of Zes and Res.

In the short circuit test the wattmeter record, the total losses including core loss but the value of core loss is very small as compared to copper loss so, the core loss can be neglected.

## 2 Comments

Thanks for explaining the process of open circuit and short circuit test. Can you add some mathematical example here? I need to do some math about open circuit and short circuit test. So I’m finding an online calculator here http://azcalculator.com/transformer-open-circuit-short-circuit-test-calculator.php

Do you think this calculator will provide me correct answer?

Yes, this calculator gives the accurate result.