Difference between Electric & Magnetic Field

The one of the major difference between the magnetic and electric field is that the electric field induces around the static charge particle which is either negative or positive, whereas the magnetic field produces around the poles (i.e., the north and south pole) of the magnet. Some other differences between them are explained below in the form of comparison chart

Comparison Chart

Basis For ComparisonElectric FieldMagnetic Field
DefinitionIt is the force around the electrical charge particle. The region around the magnetic where poles exhibits a force of attraction or repulsion.
UnitVolt/meter or Newton/coulomb Tesla, (Newton × Second) /(Coulomb × Meter)
SymbolEB
Formulaelectric-field-1magentic-field-2
Measuring InstrumentMagnetometer Electrometer
PoleMono pole Dipole
Electromagnetic FieldIt is perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is perpendicular to the electric field.
FieldVectorVector
Field LineInduces on a positive charge and terminate on a negative charge Generate at north pole and terminate at the south pole.
LoopElectric field lines do not form a closed loop.Magnetic line forms a closed loop.
Type of chargeNegative or positive charge. North or south pole.
ForceRepulsion force on like charges and attraction force on unlike charges.Repulsion force on like poles and attraction force on unlike poles.
DimensionExist in two dimensions Remain in three dimensions
WorkField can do work (the speed and direction of particles changes)Magnetic field cannot do work (speed of particles remain constant)

Definition of Magnetic Field

The region around the magnetic where its poles exhibit a force of attraction or repulsion is called a magnetic field. The magnetic field also induces when the electric charges are moving in space or an electrical conductor.

magnetic-field-lineThe moving charge carrier and magnet produce magnetic flux lines, and these lines are called magnetic field lines. It is a vector quantity because it has both magnitude and direction. The magnetic field is expressed by the symbol B and it is measured in Tesla or Newton per meter.

Definition of Electric Field

The force around the electrical charge particle is called an electrical field or electric field intensity. In other words, it is an area around the electric field where the force line exists. It has magnitude and direction. Hence it is a vector quantity.The electric field is express by the symbol E, and it is measured in newton/coulomb.

electric-field-lineKey Differences Between Electric Field and Magnetic Field

  1. The region around the electric charge where the electric force exists is called an electric field. The area around the magnet where the pole of the magnet exhibits a force of attraction or repulsion is called a magnetic field.
  2. The SI unit of an electric field is the newton/coulomb, whereas the SI unit of magnetic field is Tesla.
  3. The magnetic field is specified by direction and magnitude. Thus it is a vector quantity. The electric field is also called a vector field.
  4. The electric field intensity is measured by an electrometer whereas the magnetic field intensity is measured by the magnetometer.
  5. In an electromagnetic field, the electric field is perpendicular to the magnetic field, whereas the magnetic field is perpendicular to an electric field.
  6. The electric field produces by a unit pole charge, i.e., either by a positive or through a negative charge, whereas the magnetic field causes by a dipole of the magnet (i.e., the north and south pole).
  7. The electric field line induces on a positive charge and extinguishes on a negative charge, whereas the magnetic field line generates from a north pole and terminate to the south pole of the magnet.
  8. The electric field lines do not form a loop whereas the magnetic field lines form a closed loop.
  9. The electric field is directly proportional to the flux whereas the intensity of the magnetic field depends on the number of field lines produces by the magnet.
  10. In the electric field, the like charges repel each other, and the unlike charges attract each other, whereas in a  magnetic field the like poles repel each other and the unlike poles attract each other.
  11. The electric fields induce by a single charge (positive or negative charge) whereas the magnetic fields induce by a north and south pole of the magnet.
  12. The electric field intensity is express by the symbol E whereas the magnetic field intensity is express by B.
  13. The electric field lines are measured in two dimensions, whereas the magnetic field lines are measured in three dimensions.
  14. The electric field line can do work, i.e., the speed and the direction of the charge changes, whereas the magnet field cannot do work, i.e., the direction of charge change but the speed of the particles remain constant.

Conclusion:

Charges produce the electric and magnetic fields. The electric field produces by positive or negative charges, and the magnetic field induces by the poles of the magnet. When the unit charge or a bar of a magnet is placed in space, then the electric and magnetic line induce around it.

These lines illustrate a field around a charge and a magnet. The density of the line is directly proportional to the strength of the field. The magnetic lines form a loop around the bar, and their direction is from north to south. The direction of electric field lines is from the positive charge to the negative charge.

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