A 4 Point Starter is almost similar in functional characteristics like 3 Point Starter. In the absence of back EMF, the 4 Point Starter acts as a current limiting device while starting of the DC motor. 4 Point Starter also acts a protecting device.
The basic difference in 4 Point Starter as compared to 3 Point Starter is that in this a holding coil is removed from the shunt field circuit. This coil after removing is connected across the line in series with a current limiting resistance R. The studs are the contact points of the resistance represented by 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 in the figure below.
The schematic connection diagram of a 4 Point Starter is shown below.
- Armature, starting the resistance and the shunt field winding.
- A variable resistance and the shunt field winding.
- Holding coil and the current limiting resistance.
With the above three arrangements of the circuit, there will be no effect on the current through the holding coil if there is any variation in speed of the motor or any change in field current of the motor. This is because the two circuits are independent of each other.
The only limitation or the drawback of the 4 point starter is that it cannot limit or control the high current speed of the motor. If the field winding of the motor gets opened under the running condition, the field current automatically reduces to zero. But as some of the residual flux is still present in the motor, and we know that the flux is directly proportional to the speed of the motor. Therefore, the speed of the motor increases drastically, which is dangerous and thus protection is not possible. This sudden increase in the speed of the motor is known as High-Speed Action of the Motor.
Nowadays automatic push button starters are also used. In the automatic starters, the ON push button is pressed to connect the current limiting starting resistors in series with the armature circuit. As soon as the full line voltage is available to the armature circuit, this resistor is gradually disconnected by an automatic controlling arrangement.
The circuit is disconnected when the OFF button is pressed. Automatic starter circuits have been developed using electromagnetic contactors and time delay relays. The main advantage of the automatic starter is that it enables even the inexperienced operator to start and stop the motor without any difficulty.