## OR Gate

An OR gate has two or more than two inputs and one output signal. It is called an OR gate because the output signal will be high only if any or all input signals are high. The OR gate follows the logical operation of the input and output signals. It permits the signal to pass …

## Four Quadrant Operation of DC Motor

Four Quadrant Operation of any drives or DC Motor means that the machine operates in four quadrants. They are Forward Braking, Forward motoring, Reverse motoring and Reverse braking. A motor operates in two modes – Motoring and Braking. A motor drive capable of operating in both directions of rotation and of producing both motoring and …

## RS Flip Flop

A Flip Flop is a bi-stable device. There are three classes of flip flops they are known as Latches, pulse-triggered flip-flop, Edge- triggered flip flop. In this set word means that the output of the circuit is equal to 1 and the word reset means that the output is 0. There are two types of …

## Hopkinson’s Test

Hopkinson’s Test is also known as Regenerative Test, Back to Back and Heat Run Test. In Hopkinson Test, two identical shunt machines are required which are coupled both mechanically and electrically in parallel. One is acting as a motor and another one as a generator. The input to the motor is given by the supply mains. …

## DeMorgan’s Theorem

DeMorgan’s Theorem is mainly used to solve the various Boolean algebra expressions. The Demorgan’s theorem defines the uniformity between the gate with the same inverted input and output. It is used for implementing the basic gate operation likes NAND gate and NOR gate. The Demorgan’s theorem mostly used in digital programming and for making digital …

## Electrical Braking of DC Motor

Electrical Braking is usually employed in applications to stop a unit driven by motors in an exact position or to have the speed of the driven unit suitably controlled during its deceleration. Electrical braking is used in applications where frequent, quick, accurate or emergency stops are required. Electrical Braking allows smooth stops without any inconvenience …

## NOT Operation

Like OR and AND operation, the NOT Operation is also an important function in the digital electronic circuit. It is denoted by a bar. The binary not operation is also known as not function or complement function or bit invert function. The not operation has only one input and one output. The input and output …

## OR Operation

The OR Operation is also one of the functions in a digital logic circuit. It is represented by a plus (+) sign. For example: x + y = z which is read as “x or y is equal to z”. The truth table for the OR operation is shown in the table below: The truth …

## AND Operation

The three Binary Operations are AND Operation, OR and NOT Operation. A binary logic deals with variables having distinct values like true or false, yes or no, hot or cold, high or low, etc. In a digital system design, assigning the values 1 or 0 to these two values of the variables because digital algebraic …

## Plugging or Reverse Current Braking

In Plugging or Reverse Current Braking the armature terminals or the supply polarity of a separately excited or shunt motor when running are reversed. Therefore, in plugging the supply voltage V and the induced voltage Eb which is also called back EMF will act in the same direction. Thus, during plugging the effective voltage across …