# Metadyne

**Metadyne** is a special machine which consists of two pairs of brushes or has an additional set of brushes on the d axis. This arrangement enables the armature MMF to provide most of the excitation and achieve higher power gains. In this, the brushes of the quadrature axis (q axis) are short-circuited, and direct axis (d axis) brushes give the output.

The schematic diagram of a Metadyne is shown below.

A stator of the machine has a control field winding. A current i_{f }flows through the control field winding. The generator is rotating at a constant speed; an EMF e_{aq} is induced between the quadrature axis brushes qq’ because of the control field winding MMF.

This EMF is given by the equation shown below.

Where, K_{af} is a constant and i_{f} is the field current.

The brushes qq’ are short-circuited, a quadrature axis armature current i_{q} flows and establish an MMF F_{q} if the quadrature axis. Since the impedance of the short-circuited path is low, a small change in control field current produces a greater armature current in the q axis.

The magnetic field is stationary in space because of the commutator action. Rotation in the q axis flux produces an EMF in the armature. This EMF appears across the direct axis brushes dd’ and is given by the equation shown below.

Where, K_{dq} is a constant and i_{q} is the quadrature axis armature current.

If the load resistance R_{L} is connected across the direct axis brushes, the direct axis armature current i_{d} will flow through the load. A direct axis flux F_{d} is produced by this current and according to Lenz’s law, it opposes its main cause, i.e., the control field MMF F_{f}.

The magnetic field of the current produced is 90 degrees ahead of the flux wave producing the voltage. Since, there are two stages of voltage generation, the MMF of the direct axis output current is shifted twice by 90 degrees. As a result, it opposes the control field MMF.

The voltage generated in the quadrature axis is given as

Where K_{qd} is a constant if the magnetic saturation is neglected and speed is assumed to be constant.

An increase in i_{d} decreases e_{aq} and as a result, i_{q} is reduced. Hence, e_{ad }and i_{d} are reduced. Thus, over a wide range of load variation the value of field excitation current i_{f} and the output current i_{d} remains constant. **A Metadyne acts as a constant current generator.**

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