What is a Transformer

A Transformer is a static electrical machine which transfers AC electrical power from one circuit to the other circuit at the constant frequency, but the voltage level can be altered that means voltage can be increased or decreased according to the requirement.

The main reason for adopting the AC system instead of DC system for the generation, transmission and distribution of electrical power is that the alternating voltage can be increased or decreased accordingly with the help of the transformer.

transformer-circuit

It plays an important role in the power system. Considering the economical point of view electrical power is transmitted at high voltages whereas, from a safety point of view, the power is utilised at low voltages.Hence, this increase in the voltage level of transmission and decrease in the voltage level of utilisation of the power can be possible by using a transformer.

Contents:

Necessity of a Transformer

In India, usually, electrical power is generated at 11Kv. For economical reasons AC power is transmitted at very high voltages say 220 kV or 440 kV over long distances. Therefore a step up transformer is applied at the generating stations. Now for safety reasons the voltage is stepped down to different levels by step down transformer at various substations to feed the power to the different locations and thus the utilisation of power is done at 400/230 V.

General-figure-of-transformerIf (V2 > V1) the voltage is raised on the output side and is known as Step-up transformer

If (V2 < V1) the voltage level is lowered on the output side and is known as Step down transformer

It works on the principle of Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction which states that “ the magnitude of voltage is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux.”

Construction of a Transformer

It mainly consists of

  1. Magnetic circuit (consisting of core, limbs, yoke and damping structure.
  2. Electrical circuit (consists of primary and secondary windings)
  3. Dielectric circuit (consisting of insulations in different forms and used at the different places)
  4. Tanks and accessories (conservator, breather, bushings, cooling tubes, etc.)

Types of Transformer

The various types are described below

  1. Position of the windings with respect to the core
  • Core type
  • Shell type
  1. According to the transformation ratio or number of turns in the windings
  • Step up
  • Step down

3. Types of services

  • Power transformer
  • Distribution transformer
  • Instrument transformer
    • Current transformer
    • Potential transformer
    • Auto-transformer

4. On the basis of the supply

  • Single phase
  • Three phase

5. On the basis of cooling

  • Air Natural (AN) or Self air cooled or dry type
  • Air Forced (AF) or Air Blast type
  • Oil Natural Air Natural (ONAN)
  • Oil Natural Air Forced (ONAF)
  • Oil Forced Air Forced (OFAF)
  • Oil Natural Water Forced (ONWF)
  • Oil Forced Water Forced (OFWF)

EMF Equation of the Transformer

EMF Equation is given below

transformer-emf-eq

Where E1 and E2 are the voltages and N1, N2 are the number of turns in the primary and the secondary windings respectively.

Losses in the Transformer

  1. Core or iron losses
  • Hysteresis loss
  • Eddy current loss
  1. Copper losses
  2. Stray losses

Efficiency of the Transformer

Transformer efficiency is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power and is expressed in the equation below

TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY EQ

1 Comment

  1. Bernard Clyde Reply

    It’s good to know that a transformer can help improve electrical efficiency. I’m no expert, but I think it’s important that we utilize these kinds of things to help us get the most use out of our electricity in a way that is safe and effective.

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