Difference Between Capacitor and Battery

The Difference Between Capacitor and Battery is explained considering factors like function of capacitor and battery, type of component they are, their usage, voltage, charging and discharging time, life cycle, cell voltage, cost, service life, charging temperature, specific power, potential difference, polarity, types and size.

Difference Between Capacitor and Battery is shown below in the tabulated form.

BASISCAPACITORBATTERY
DefinitionPotential energy is stored in the form of an electric field.Its potential energy is stored in a chemical form.
FunctionCapacitor draws energy from the circuit, stores and then release the energy.Battery provides energy to the circuit.
Type of componentIt is the passive component of the circuit.It is the active component of the circuit.
Usage It is generally used for AC applications. It blocks the DC component of the circuit.It is used as the DC components.
Voltage In capacitor voltage gets rapidly decreased.The Battery provides a relatively constant voltage when discharging.
Charging and discharging time Charging and discharging is fast as compared to batteries. It is about 1-10 secCharging and discharging is relatively slow. About 10-60 min
Life cycle1 million or 30000 hours500 or more
Cell voltage2.3 to 2.75 V3.6 to 3.7 V
Specific powerThe specific power is up to 10000 (W/kg)Its specific power is about 1000 to 3000
Cost Cost of capacitor is higherCost of battery is less as compared to the capacitor.
Service life 10- 15 years5 to 10 years
Charging temperature-40 to 65 degrees Celsius0 to 45 degrees Celsius
Potential differencePotential difference increases exponentially with time.Potential difference generated by a battery is constant.
Polarity The Polarity of the capacitor must be same at the time of charging and using.The Polarity of the battery is reversed at the time of charging and using.
Types Electrolytic, Ceramic and TantalumAlkaline,lead acid, lithium, lithium-ion, Nickel cadmium, zinc carbon.
Size Capacitors are large in sizeBatteries are small in size as compared to the capacitor.

The Capacitor consists of two or more parallel plates which are separated by a dielectric medium. When an electric current is supplied to the capacitor, the current enters the plate. The dielectric used to stop the flow of the current. Thus, a change is created which is stored in the form of an electric field.

A Battery is a source of energy in the electrical network. It consists of three main parts known as positive terminal (Cathode), negative terminal (Anode) and the electrolyte. The charging and discharging takes place by the chemical reaction which generates the voltage.

Difference Between Capacitor and Battery is described below in detail.

  • In Capacitor Potential energy is stored in the form of an electric field, whereas in Battrey the potential energy is stored in a chemical form.
  • Capacitor draws energy from the circuit, stores and then release the energy. The Battery provides energy to the circuit.
  • Capacitor is the passive component of the circuit, whereas Battery is the active component.
  • Capacitor generally used for AC applications. It blocks the DC component of the circuit. Battery is used as the DC components.
  • In capacitor voltage gets rapidly decreased. The Battery provides a relatively constant voltage when discharging.
  • Charging and discharging is fast as compared to batteries. It is about 1-10 seconds, whereas Charging time of the battery varies 10-60 minutes.
  • The Life cycle of a Capacitor is about 1 million or 30000 hours, whereas Battery life cycle is 500 hours or more
  • The Cell voltage of a Capacitor is 2.3 to 2.75 Volts whereas that of battery is 3.6 to 3.7 Volts
  • The specific power of a Capacitor is up to 10000 (W/kg) whereas for the battery it is 1000 to 3000
  • Cost of battery is less as compared to the capacitor.
  • The Service life of a Capacitor is about 10- 15 years, whereas for Battery it is 5 to 10 years.
  • The Charging temperature of a Capacitor is -40 to 65 degrees Celsius, whereas for Battery it is 0 to 45 degrees Celsius.
  • Potential difference increases exponentially with time in Capacitor. Potential difference generated by a battery is constant.
  • The Polarity of the capacitor must be similar at the time of charging and using both. The Polarity of the battery is different at the time of charging and using that means it is reversed.
  • Electrolytic, Ceramic and Tantalum are the different types of Capacitor. Similarly the different types of battery are Alkaline,lead acid, lithium, lithium-ion, Nickel cadmium, zinc carbon.
  • Batteries are smaller in size as compared to that of the capacitor.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Shares