In a transmission line, air acts as a dielectric medium between the conductors. When the voltage is applied across the sending end of the transmission line, current starts flowing between the conductors (due to imperfections of the dielectric medium). This current is called the charging current in the transmission line.In other words, we can say, the current associated with the capacitance of a line is known as the charging current.The strength of the charging current depends on the voltage, frequency, and capacitance of the line. It is given by the equations shown below.
For a single-phase line, the charging current
Where, C= line-to-line in farads
Xc= capacitive reactance in ohms
V= line voltage in volts
Significance of charging current
- It reduces the load current, due to which line losses decreases, and hence the efficiency of the line is increased.
- It improves the power factor of the transmission line.
- Charging current improves the load capacity of the line.
- It improves the voltage regulation of the line because the voltage drop is quite small.