Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO)

Definition: The cathode ray oscilloscope (CRO) is a type of electrical instrument which is used for showing the measurement and analysis of waveforms and others electronic and electrical phenomenon. It is a very fast X-Y plotter shows the input signal versus another signal or versus time. The CROs are used to analyse the waveforms, transient,…

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Measurement Error

Definition: The measurement error is defined as the difference between the true or actual value and the measured value. True value is the average of the infinite number of measurements, and the measured value is the precise value. Types of Errors in Measurement The error may arise from the different source and are usually classified into…

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Null Type Instrument

Definition: An instrument in which zero or null indication determines the magnitude of measured quantity such type of instrument is called a null type instrument. It uses a null detector which indicating the null condition when the measured quantity and the opposite quantity are same. Such type of instrument has high accuracy and also it…

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Accuracy & Precision

Accuracy Definition: Accuracy is the ability of the instrument to measure the accurate value. In other words, it is the closeness of the measured value to a standard or true value. The accuracy of the system may be classified in the following ways. 1. Point Accuracy – This is the accuracy of the system only at…

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Reverse Bias p n Junction

When the positive terminal of a DC source or battery is connected to n-type, and the negative terminal is connected to p-type semiconductor of a p n junction, the junction is said to be in Reverse Biasing condition. The diagram of reverse bias p n junction is shown below. In this case, the applied reverse…

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Forward Bias p n Junction

A p n junction is said to be operating under the biasing condition it is connected across an electric supply. The Potential difference across the p n junction can be applied in two ways, namely Forward Biasing and Reverse Biasing. When the positive terminal of a DC source or battery is connected to p-type, and…

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Full Wave Bridge Rectifier

In Full Wave Bridge Rectifier, an ordinary transformer is used in place of a center tapped transformer. The circuit forms a bridge connecting the four diodes D1, D2, D3, and D4. The circuit diagram of Full Wave Bridge Rectifier is shown below. Contents: Operation of Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Peak Inverse Voltage of Full Wave…

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Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier

The Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier employs a transformer with the secondary winding AB tapped at the center point C. The two diode D1 and D2 are connected in the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram below. Contents: Operation of the Center Tapped Full Wave Rectifier Peak Inverse Voltage of Center Tapped Full Wave…

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Half Wave and Full Wave Rectifier

In Half Wave Rectifier, when AC supply is applied at the input, positive half cycle appears across the load, whereas the negative half cycle is suppressed. Circuit Diagram of Half Wave Rectifier In half wave rectification, only one crystal diode is used. It is connected in the circuit as shown below. The AC supply to…

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Semiconductor Diode

A p n junction is known as a Semiconductor Diode. The p n junction is used for the purpose of rectification as it conducts only in one direction. It is also known as crystal diode as it is made of a crystal-like Silicon or Germanium. The symbol of the semiconductor diode is shown below. It…

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