Octal Number System

Definition: The number system whose base is 8 is known as the octal number system. The base 8 means the system uses eight digits from 0 to 7. All the eight digits from 0 to 8 have same physical meaning as that of decimal numbers. The next digit in octal number is represented by 10,…

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PNP Transistor

Definition: The transistor in which one n-type material is doped with two p-type materials such type of transistor is known as PNP transistor. It is a current controlled device. The small amount of base current controlled both the emitter and collector current. The PNP transistor has two crystal diodes connected back to back. The left side…

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Transistor Load Line Analysis

Definition: The load line analysis of transistor means for the given value of collector-emitter voltage we find the value of collector current. This can be done by plotting the output characteristic and then determine the collector current IC with respect to collector-emitter voltage VCE. The load line analysis can easily be obtained by determining the…

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Operating Point in Transistor

 Definition: The point which is obtained from the values of the IC (collector current) or VCE (collector-emitter voltage) when no signal is given to the input is known as the operating point or Q-point in a transistor. It is called operating point because variations of IC (collector current) and VCE (collector-emitter voltage) takes place around this point when no…

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Volt-Ampere Characteristic of a PN Junction Diode

The volt-ampere characteristic of the PN-junction diode is a curve between the voltage over the junction and the circuit current. The circuit arrangement of the curve is shown in the figure below. The circuit arrangement shows that the resistor is connected in series with the PN junction diode to limit the forward bias current from…

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Common Collector Connection (or CC Configuration)

Definition: The configuration in which the collector is common between emitter and base is known as CC configuration. In CC configuration, the input circuit is connected between emitter and base and the output is taken from the collector and emitter. The collector is common to both the input and output circuit and hence the name…

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NPN Transistor

Definition: The transistor in which one p-type material is placed between two n-type materials is known as NPN transistor. The NPN transistor amplifies the weak signal enter into the base and produces strong amplify signals at the collector end. In NPN transistor, the direction of movement of an electron is from the emitter to collector region due…

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Common Emitter Connection (or CE Configuration)

Definition: The configuration in which the emitter is connected between the collector and base is known as a common emitter configuration. The input circuit is connected between emitter and base, and the output circuit is taken from the collector and emitter. Thus, the emitter is common to both the input and the output circuit, and…

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Common Base Connection (CB Configuration)

Definition: The configuration in which the base of the transistor is common between emitter and collector circuit is called a common base configuration. The common base circuit arrangement for NPN and PNP transistor is shown in the figure below. In common base-emitter connection, the input is connected between emitter and base while the output is…

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Common Emitter Amplifier

The common emitter NPN amplifier circuit is shown in the figure below. The source VBB is applied to the input circuit in addition to the signal. The VBB battery provides the forward bias voltage to the emitter-base junction of the transistor. The magnitude of the forward bias voltage should be such that it should keep…

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