AC Potentiometer

Definition: The potentiometer which is used for measuring the phase and the magnitude of the unknown emf by comparing it with the known emf such type of potentiometer is known as the AC potentiometer. The working principle of the AC potentiometer is same as that of the DC potentiometer, i.e., the unknown voltage is determined by…

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Different Layouts for Substation

The substation is the part of an electrical supply system which transmits the high voltage from the generating substations to the local distribution networks. Between the generation and distribution, the voltage may vary through several substations. The different types of layout for substation are explained below in details. Typical Radial Substation In the radial substation,…

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Universal Relay Torque Equation

The universal torque equation explains the working of an electrical relay. The relay has some arrangement of electromagnetic. These electromagnetic consist current and voltage windings. The current through the winding produces magnetic flux. And the torque is produced by the interaction of the flux of the same winding or between the flux of both the windings. If…

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Methods of Voltage Control in Power System

The voltage of the power system may vary with the change in load. The voltage is normally high at light load and low at the heavy-load condition. For keeping the voltage of the system in limits, some additional equipment requires which increase the system voltage when it is low and reduces the voltage when it…

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Effects of Electric Current on Human Body

When an electrical current passes through the body, the nervous system experience an electric shock. The intensity of the shock depends mainly on the strength of the current and the path taken by the current through the body and the duration of contact. In extreme cases the shock causes the failure of the normal action…

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Primary & Backup Protection

Primary Protection The main protection or primary protection is the first line protection which provides quick-acting and selective clearing of a fault within the boundary of the circuit section or element it protects. The main protection is provided in each section of an electrical installation. Backup Protection The backup protection provides the back up to…

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Transposition of Conductors

Definition: The transposition is a physical rotation of the conductors so that the conductor is moved to take up the next physical position in the regular sequence. The transposition of the conductor equalises the mutual inductance and capacitance between the lines. The irregular spacing between the conductor gives a complex value of inductances which makes…

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Sequence Impedance

The sequence impedance of the network describes the behaviour of the system under asymmetrical fault conditions. The performance of the system determines by calculating the impedance offered by the different element of the power system to the flow of the different phase sequence component of the current. Every power system component (static or rotating) has…

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Single Line Diagram of 11kV Substation

Substation provides the energy supply for the local area in which the line is located. The main function of the substation is to collect the energy transmitted at high voltage from the generating station and then reduce the voltage to an appropriate value for local distribution and gives facilities for switching. The substation is of…

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Sequence Networks

Definition: The sequence impedance network is defined as a balance equivalent network for the balance power system under an imagined working condition so that only single sequence component of voltage and current is present in the system. The symmetrical components are useful for computing the unsymmetrical fault at different points of a power system network.…

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